AMD is a common condition that affects the middle part of your vision. It usually affects people in their 50s and 60s. It does not cause total blindness but can affect everyday activities like reading and recognising faces. Without treatment your vision can get worse and this can happen gradually over several years or quickly over a few months or weeks. Some risk factors include age, smoking, female gender, family history and high blood pressure.
Most cataracts are age-related and more common in people over the age of 50. These are cloudy areas that develop in the eye lens. When you have cataracts, light can’t get through easily. Cataracts often develop slowly, they don’t usually cause symptoms like pain or redness. Some can stay small and don’t affect your sight but if they do progress vision surgery may be necessary.
Diabetic retinopathy is a complication of diabetes, caused by high blood sugar levels damaging the back of the eye (retina). If left undiagnosed and untreated it can cause blindness. The condition can develop in anyone who has type 1 or type 2 diabetes.
However, it can take years to develop and you can minimise your risk by keeping your blood sugar levels in control.
Glaucoma is a common eye condition where the optic nerve which connects the eye to the brain becomes damaged. It’s usually caused by a buildup of fluid in the front part of the eye which increases the pressure inside the eye. Some pressure inside the eye is normal and safe but too much pressure can damage your optic nerve. If not diagnosed and treated it can lead to vision loss.
Refractive error is a very common eye disorder. It occurs when the eye cannot clearly focus on images.The result is blurred vision which can be serious enough to cause an impairment.
The four most common refractive errors are:
The most common form of treatment for this are glasses, contact lenses and surgery.
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